如何翻譯典型的法律禁令句型

作者:江蘇翻譯小編(南京翻譯公司) 發布時間:2021-01-09 16:42???? 瀏覽量:
我們知道在法律條文中有很多特殊的句式分類。如表達禁止性規范的“不得”字句、“禁止”字句、“處”字句等;表達授權性規范的“可”字句、“有”字句、“行使”字句等;表達義務性規范的“應”字句、“須”字句等。每種法律規范的表達都有其特有的句式,今天小編就為你奉上表達禁止性規范的4種典型句型翻譯。
 
典型法律禁令句型翻譯之一:“不得”字句
 
用“不得”字句表達禁止性規范,莊重嚴肅,簡潔明了。“不得”一般譯作shall not, 然而“不能”常譯為may not,這和英文中一些否定表達方法對應一致,故不再重復。注意要根據實際情況來選擇程度不同的否定表達方式。
 
例1:沒收財產是沒收犯罪分子個人所有財產的一部分或者全部。在判處沒收財產的時候,不得沒收屬于犯罪分子家屬所有或者應有的財產。(刑法第五十九條)
  
參考譯文:
Confiscation of property refers to the confiscation of part of all of the property personally owned by a criminal. When a sentence of confiscation of property is imposed, property that the criminal’s family member owns or should own shall not be subject to confiscation.
(與“不得”語義相近的還有“不許,不準,不能”等)
  
例2:判決宣告以前一人犯數罪的,除判處死刑和無期徒刑的以外,應當在總和刑期以下、數刑中最高刑期以上,酌情決定執行的刑期;但是管制最高不能超過三年,拘役最高不能超過一年,有期徒刑最高不能超過二十年。
  
參考譯文:
For a criminal who commits several crimes before a judgment is pronounced, unless he is sentenced to death or life imprisonment, his term of punishment shall be decided in such a way that it may not exceed the total of the terms for all the crimes and must be longer than the maximum term for any one of the crimes, depending on the circumstances of each case. However, the term of public surveillance may not exceed three years, the term of criminal detention may not exceed one year, and fixed-term imprisonment may not exceed twenty years.
 
法律合同翻譯

典型法律禁令句型翻譯之二:“禁止”字句

 
“禁止”字句在漢譯英的過程中通常譯為be prohibited 句式。
 
例1: 禁止證券交易內幕信息的知情人和非法獲取內幕信息的人利用內幕信息從事證券交易活動。
 
參考譯文:
Persons possessing inside information relating to securities trading and persons obtaining such information unlawfully are prohibited from making use of such inside information in securities trading activities.
 
例2:禁止任何人利用任何手段擾亂社會秩序。擾亂社會秩序情節嚴重,致使工作、生產、營業和教學、科研無法進行,國家和社會遭受嚴重損失的,對首要分子處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剝奪政治權利。
 
參考譯文:
It shall be prohibited for anyone to disturb public order by any means. If the circumstances of the public disturbance are so serious that work, production, business, education or scientific research cannot be conducted and the state and society suffer serious losses, the ringleaders shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, criminal detention, public surveillance or deprivation of political rights.
 
律師事務所

典型法律禁令句型翻譯之三:“處”字句

 
用“處”字句表示禁止性規范有以下兩個特點:其一,在語義上,與“不得”字句不同的是,它用具體的制裁來表示禁令。其二,在結構上,主語往往為“的”字結構,突出犯罪主體或犯罪行為;謂語部分的“處”字突出對犯罪主體或犯罪行為的處置。
 
“處”字句一般為被動句,為使行為簡潔,實施(司法機關)一般不出現。有時為了使語義明確,實施(司法機關)也可以出現,通常譯為be sentenced to句式。
 
例1:策動、勾引、收買國家工作人員、武裝部隊、人民警察、民兵投敵叛變或者叛亂的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑。(刑法第九十三條)
 
參考譯文:
Whoever instigates lures or bribes a state functionary or a member of the armed forces, the people’s police or the people’s militia to defect to the enemy and turn traitor or to rise in rebellion shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.
 
典型法律禁令句型翻譯之四:“是”字句
 
“是”字句規定什么行為是犯罪,語氣堅決,表達禁止性規范莊重簡練。與“處”字句不同的是,它不表述具體的處罰。常譯為refer to,用來解釋說明。
 
例1:明知自己的行為會發生危害社會的后果,并且希望或者放任這種結果發生,因而構成犯罪的,是故意犯罪。(刑法第十四條)
 
參考譯文:
An intentional crime refers to a crime committed by a person who clearly knows that his act will produce socially dangerous consequences but who wishes or allows such consequences to occur.
 
例2:組織、領導犯罪集團進行犯罪活動的或者在共同犯罪中起主要作用的,是主犯。對于主犯,除本法分則已有規定的以外,應當從重處罰。(刑法第二十三條)
 
參考譯文:
A principal criminal refers to any person who organizes and leads a criminal group in carrying out criminal activities or plays a principal role in a joint crime. A principal criminal shall be given a heavier punishment unless otherwise provided for in the specific provisions of this Law.
 
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